Posts Tagged ‘Tetragrammaton’

THE NAME OF GOD: SHOULD WE USED IT OR NOT?

The Name of God: Should We Used it or Not?

(An Old Exposition about the Name of God)

Most religions in Christianity believe that LORD and God are enough to address the God Almighty. For them, since the Christian Greek Scriptures or the New Testament (from which they claim the manuscripts found were original) has no name of God but rather only Lord and God and so they say it is proper and acceptable to call God in that way. These religions are deliberately criticizing the Jehovah’s Witnesses for using Jehovah as the name of God. For them it is a false and an invented name and an improper way of addressing God. However, despite of this, the Jehovah’s Witnesses are still upholding for their faith using the name Jehovah as the name of God. Some questions the Jehovah’s Witnesses as if why Jehovah is only the acceptable name of God. The Watchtower is claiming that Jehovah is the only acceptable name for God since they believe that they are the true God’s nation and they assert that the name they call upon is the appropriate and the only name of God which is in the true congregation of God. Thus, whoever believes in their presented biblical doctrines then they have to accept this name. For how can you accept the true teachings of the true God through his true congregation and yet denying the name of God that they call upon? On the other hand, the Jehovah’s Witnesses are using many different forms of name of God that differs in pronunciation. You can check those forms of name in https://fromthesunrising.wordpress.com/2010/09/26/the-divine-name/ Moreover, the name Yahweh is recognized by the Watchtower because it is also a possible name of God because it contains the tetragrammaton (YHWH). The Watchtower had accepted the use of the name Jehovah as the name of God since this is the name that is being used and was common to the people as early as in the 14th century and is being written in some literatures by early writers before. While the name Yahweh originated only in 19th century. Some would say, “Since the Watchtower recognize Yahweh, it is also possible to use other names that have tetragrammaton.” While other claims it is possible to call God as Jahveh or Yahveh, still I believe the Watchtower believes in only one name of God just as what Zechariah 14:9 states. So we cannot just accept other names for God especially when the tetragrammaton is not in the formed name of God. Others say Jehovah’s Witnesses is uncertain in the right pronunciation of the original name of God so it is not also proper to say or use Jehovah. That is not a big problem in addressing God. Many names in the Bible differ in some languages. As I have said lately, the Jehovah’s Witnesses are using many different forms of name of God according to their own language. They may differ in pronunciation yet it is all the same in English translation of the name of God which is Jehovah. Others say Yahweh is more correct since it has all the tetragrammaton (YHWH) unlike Jehovah which has JHVH. The Modern Hebrew alphabet does not have Y and W now. It has changed to J and V. For Hebrew Alphabet and Modern Hebrew Alphabet please see this link:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_alphabet#The_alphabet

We all know that some names in Hebrew Bible starts with Y such as Yeshayahu, Yeremeyahu, Ya’akov, Yonah, Yonathan (not quite sure with this one) and others were translated as Isaiah, Jeremiah, Jacob, Jonah and Jonathan in English translation respectively. But we accept all of these translations having  no problem in dealing with these names. Jesus was written as Iesous in Greek and it was believed by many scholars and was accepted by many religions in Christianity that it maybe pronounced as Yeshua or Yehoshua in Hebrew and since this is true we accept the name of Jesus in our Bible translations having no problem on how it was pronounced before. The names in the Bible were written in different languages. Malachi is Malakias in Tagalog. Isaiah is Isaias in Tagalog, Peter is Pedro, John is Juan, Stephen is Esteban and James is Santiago (which is quite so far from English) in Tagalog. All of these names in Tagalog are accepted by Filipino. In other countries they also render these names according to their own language. So what’s the problem in pronouncing the name of God in different ways? We all accept it because of our faith and believe in the identity and personality of the carrier of that name. So why questions the name Jehovah? The question that should be asked by all is should we not use the name of God? The answer can be found in Romans 10:13.

Romans 10:13 For “everyone who calls on the name of Jehovah will be saved.” – NWT

13 for, “Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.” – TNIV

Joel 2:31 – 32

31 The sun itself will be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the coming of the great and fear-inspiring day of Jehovah. 32 And it must occur that everyone who calls on the name of Jehovah will get away safe; for in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there will prove to be the escaped ones, just as Jehovah has said, and in among the survivors, whom Jehovah is calling.” – NWT

31 The sun will be turned to darkness
and the moon to blood
before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD.

32 And everyone who calls
on the name of the LORD will be saved
;
for on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem
there will be deliverance,
as the LORD has said,
even among the survivors
whom the LORD calls. – TNIV

It is said that all people who is calling the name of God will be saved. Is it only by calling the name of God assures our salvation? No. It is clear in James 2:26 that faith without work is dead. Faith without works is useless. It is like having wisdom yet not applying the truth or righteousness in your life. Wisdom alone cannot save us. But what also matters to God is the love. The love for the truth and love for God. The love for the truth is the love for accurate knowledge about the word of God and the love for God is to follow his commands – 1 John 5:3. When you follow his commands then you follow his will and following his will means righteousness. And what is his will concerning his name? We are all required to praise him. All living things are required to praise God – Psalms 150:6. How are going to praise God? Of course the first way is to praise him through his name. Read Psalms 148:1 – 14.

Psalms 148:1-14

Praise Jah, YOU people!
Praise Jehovah from the heavens,
Praise him in the heights.

2 Praise him, all YOU his angels.
Praise him, all YOU his army.

3 Praise him, YOU sun and moon.
Praise him, all YOU stars of light.

4 Praise him, YOU heavens of the heavens,
And YOU waters that are above the heavens.

5 Let them praise the name of Jehovah;
For he himself commanded, and they were created.

6 And he keeps them standing forever, to time indefinite.
A regulation he has given, and it will not pass away.

7 Praise Jehovah from the earth,
YOU sea monsters and all YOU watery deeps,

8 YOU fire and hail, snow and thick smoke,
You tempestuous wind, accomplishing his word,

9 YOU mountains and all YOU hills,
YOU fruit trees and all YOU cedars,

10 YOU wild animals and all YOU domestic animals,
YOU creeping things and winged birds,

11 YOU kings of the earth and all YOU national groups,
YOU princes and all YOU judges of the earth,

12 YOU young men and also YOU virgins,
YOU old men together with boys.

13 Let them praise the name of Jehovah,
For his name alone is unreachably high.
His dignity is above earth and heaven.

14 And he will exalt the horn of his people,
The praise of all his loyal ones,
Of the sons of Israel, the people near to him.
Praise Jah, YOU people!

Take note verse 5 and 13. What does it says? God calls us to praise his name. There are other verses in the Bible that required human to praise the name of God.  Back to Romans 10:13. In other versions it is only “call upon the name of the Lord” but what name should we call upon? When Paul wrote Romans 10:13, he quoted it from Joel 2:32 however, take a look of verse 31. When this is about to happen? It is in the coming Armageddon – on the Great Day of Jehovah. It was said that all who is calling upon the name Jehovah will be saved. Thus, we really need a name for God to call upon for us to have salvation. In addition to this, Psalms 68:4 provides us that Jah (YH = י ה , read backwards) is a short form of the name of God. You can see it in the original translation of KJV. The name Jehovah can be found also in Psalms 83:18 in KJV and Ang Dating Biblia or Ang Biblia. Thus, looking the name Jah in Hebrew Scriptures with tetragrammaton we can see that it has YH. All the names Jah and Jehovah in Hebrew Scriptures which can be found in Interlinear Bible corresponds from proper characters in Hebrew Scriptures for the name of God i.e. YH (

י ה

)and the tetragrammaton YHWH (

י ה ו ה

) How come Jehovah’s Witnesses is sure of the name Jah? It is because in the book of Revelation in the New Testament there is a word Aleluia in Greek which is the same as Halleluyah in Hebrew and when translated in English it becomes Hallelujah which means praise Jah (see Revelation 19:1,3 from NWT and other bible versions). “Hallelujah” or “praise God” is accepted by Christianity. Since Jesus was Iesous in Greek and might be pronounce his name in Hebrew as Yeshua of Yehoshua which has Y in the beginning of his name then it is also true that Jah is a translation of Yah which is Ia in Greek. Thus the last two letters in Allelouia in Greek language [IA] (wherein there is no letter H) was really from Ya which is also Yah. How sure that Ia is Yah? Notice if we are going to see again Psalms 68:4 which has a short form of a name of God which is (

י ה

)  we can also be sure that Ia (Ya) is really Yah because in all short form of names of God in Hebrew it has two characters which is YH. The J and V as modern translation of Y and W in Hebrew was formed now in the name Jehovah. While YH becomes JH in modern Hebrew Alphabet. Thus Jah (Yah) from YH is really the actual and correct and UNDENIABLE short form of the name of God.  Actually, there are early manuscripts that shows the IAW as the name of God in Greek which when dividing the letters will become IA – W and that is Ya (Yah) and W. Thus we may have YHW which was written in early inscriptions in stone in one particular area. I remember I have read an article that this name came from the people called Shasou or Shosou. The article is dated on May 1, 2010. Many scholars believe that this is the name of God.

Psalms 83:18

18 That men may know that thou, whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth. – KJV

18 Upang kanilang maalaman na ikaw lamang, na ang pangalan ay JEHOVA, ay Kataastaasan sa buong lupa. – Ang Dating Biblia o Ang Biblia

See this link   http://adb.scripturetext.com/psalms/83.htm

Psalms 68:4

4 Sing unto God, sing praises to his name: extol him that rideth upon the heavens by his name JAH, and rejoice before him. – KJV

Revelation 19:1, 3

1 After these things I heard what was as a loud voice of a great crowd in heaven. They said: “Praise Jah, YOU people! The salvation and the glory and the power belong to our God,

3 And right away for the second time they said: “Praise Jah, YOU people! And the smoke from her goes on ascending forever and ever.” – NWT

1And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God:

3And again they said, Alleluia And her smoke rose up for ever and ever. – KJV

1After these things I heard something like a loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, “Hallelujah! Salvation and glory and power belong to our God;

Please see the link below that shows the original writing in Greek of the word “hallelujah”.

http://interlinearbible.org/revelation/19.htm

2BECAUSE HIS JUDGMENTS ARE TRUE AND RIGHTEOUS; for He has judged the great harlot who was corrupting the earth with her immorality, and HE HAS AVENGED THE BLOOD OF HIS BOND-SERVANTS ON HER.”

3And a second time they said, “Hallelujah! HER SMOKE RISES UP FOREVER AND EVER.” – NASB

Please see the following links below for further reading concerning the name of God.

http://www.watchtower.org/e/na/index.htm

http://www.watchtower.org/e/na/index.htm

The word hallelujah was taken from Hebrew word halleluyah wherein the word hallelu means praise followed by YH which is Yah. You can check Psalms 150 in the link below to see the word hallelujah.

http://interlinearbible.org/psalms/150.htm

Notice the other word praise (hallelu) which is also in this link and is connected in the word hallelujah.

Joel 2:31 – 32 is also repeated by Paul in Acts 2:19 – 21

19 And I will give portents in heaven above and signs on earth below, blood and fire and smoke mist; 20 the sun will be turned into darkness and the moon into blood before the great and illustrious day of Jehovah arrives. 21 And everyone who calls on the name of Jehovah will be saved.”’

Take note the “signs in heaven above and signs on earth below” which is in relation to what foretold by Jesus in Luke 21:25.

25 “Also, there will be signs in sun and moon and stars, and on the earth anguish of nations, not knowing the way out because of the roaring of the sea and [its] agitation,”

The importance of the name of God is also important just as what Revelation 11:18 states.

18 But the nations became wrathful, and your own wrath came, and the appointed time for the dead to be judged, and to give [their] reward to your slaves the prophets and to the holy ones and to those fearing your name, the small and the great, and to bring to ruin those ruining the earth.”

This verse is to be fulfilled on the coming Armageddon. It is noted that God will give the reward to those fearing his name. So the name is required, right?

The Divine Name in Christian Greek Scriptures (New Testament)

The Divine Name in the New Testament (Christian Greek Scriptures)

(An excerpt taken from the Watchtower site)

God’s Name and the “New Testament”
The name Jehovah
Jehovah’s name as it appears in a monastery in Bordesholm, Germany and over a church door in Fehmarn, Germany
The name Jehovah

THE position of God’s name is unshakable in the Hebrew Scriptures, the “Old Testament.” Although the Jews eventually stopped pronouncing it, their religious beliefs prevented them from removing the name when they made copies of older manuscripts of the Bible. Hence, the Hebrew Scriptures contain God’s name more often than any other name.

With the Christian Greek Scriptures, the “New Testament,” the situation is different. Manuscripts of the book of Revelation (the last book of the Bible) have God’s name in its abbreviated form, “Jah,” (in the word “Hallelujah”). But apart from that, no ancient Greek manuscript that we possess today of the books from Matthew to Revelation contains God’s name in full. Does that mean that the name should not be there? That would be surprising in view of the fact that Jesus’ followers recognized the importance of God’s name, and Jesus taught us to pray for God’s name to be sanctified. So what happened?

To understand this, remember that the manuscripts of the Christian Greek Scriptures that we possess today are not the originals. The actual books written by Matthew, Luke and the other Bible writers were well used and quickly wore out. Hence, copies were made, and when those wore out, further copies were made of those copies. This is what we would expect, since the copies were usually made to be used, not preserved.

There are thousands of copies of the Christian Greek Scriptures in existence today, but most of them were made during or after the fourth century of our Common Era. This suggests a possibility: Did something happen to the text of the Christian Greek Scriptures before the fourth century that resulted in the omission of God’s name? The facts prove that something did.
The Name Was There

We can be sure that the apostle Matthew included God’s name in his Gospel. Why? Because he wrote it originally in Hebrew. In the fourth century, Jerome, who translated the Latin Vulgate, reported: “Matthew, who is also Levi, and who from a publican came to be an apostle, first of all composed a Gospel of Christ in Judaea in the Hebrew language . . . Who translated it after that in Greek is not sufficiently ascertained. Moreover, the Hebrew itself is preserved to this day in the library at Caesarea.”

Since Matthew wrote in Hebrew, it is inconceivable that he did not use God’s name, especially when quoting from parts of the “Old Testament” that contained the name. However, other writers of the second part of the Bible wrote for a worldwide audience in the international language of that time, Greek. Hence, they did not quote from the original Hebrew writings but from the Septuagint Greek version. And even Matthew’s Gospel was eventually translated into Greek. Would God’s name have appeared in these Greek writings?

Well, some very old fragments of the Septuagint Version that actually existed in Jesus’ day have survived down to our day, and it is noteworthy that the personal name of God appeared in them. The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology (Volume 2, page 512) says: “Recent textual discoveries cast doubt on the idea that the compilers of the LXX [Septuagint] translated the tetragrammaton YHWH by kyrios. The oldest LXX MSS (fragments) now available to us have the tetragrammaton written in Heb[rew] characters in the G[ree]k text. This custom was retained by later Jewish translators of the O[ld] T[estament] in the first centuries A.D.” Therefore, whether Jesus and his disciples read the Scriptures in Hebrew or Greek, they would come across the divine name.

The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures properly uses God’s name 237 times

Thus, Professor George Howard, of the University of Georgia, U.S.A., made this comment: “When the Septuagint which the New Testament church used and quoted contained the Hebrew form of the divine name, the New Testament writers no doubt included the Tetragrammaton in their quotations.” (Biblical Archaeology Review, March 1978, page 14) What authority would they have had to do otherwise?

God’s name remained in Greek translations of the “Old Testament” for a while longer. In the first half of the second century C.E., the Jewish proselyte Aquila made a new translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek, and in this he represented God’s name by the Tetragrammaton in ancient Hebrew characters. In the third century, Origen wrote: “And in the most accurate manuscripts THE NAME occurs in Hebrew characters, yet not in today’s Hebrew [characters], but in the most ancient ones.”

Even in the fourth century, Jerome writes in his prologue to the books of Samuel and Kings: “And we find the name of God, the Tetragrammaton [Four Hebrew letters], in certain Greek volumes even to this day expressed in ancient letters.”

The Removal of the Name

By this time, however, the apostasy foretold by Jesus had taken shape, and the name, although appearing in manuscripts, was used less and less. (Matthew 13:24-30; Acts 20:29, 30) Eventually, many readers did not even recognize what it was and Jerome reports that in his time “certain ignorant ones, because of the similarity of the characters, when they would find [the Tetragrammaton] in Greek books, were accustomed to read Greek letters PIPI.”

In later copies of the Septuagint, God’s name was removed and words like “God” (The·os’) and “Lord” (Ky’ri·os) were substituted. We know that this happened because we have early fragments of the Septuagint where God’s name was included and later copies of those same parts of the Septuagint where God’s name has been removed.

The same thing occurred in the “New Testament,” or Christian Greek Scriptures. Professor George Howard goes on to say: “When the Hebrew form for the divine name was eliminated in favor of Greek substitutes in the Septuagint, it was eliminated also from the New Testament quotations of the Septuagint. . . . Before long the divine name was lost to the Gentile church except insofar as it was reflected in the contracted surrogates or remembered by scholars.”

Hence, while Jews refused to pronounce God’s name, the apostate Christian church managed to remove it completely from Greek language manuscripts of both parts of the Bible, as well as from other language versions.

(Quoted from the articles of Watchtower)

Please see the link below that discusses the claims of the Ante-Nicene Fathers about Jehovah and Jesus and the other proofs that says Trinity is not a biblical doctrine and the other one for further explanations.

http://www.watchtower.org/e/ti/article_03.htm

http://www.thoughts.com/letusreason/blog/gods-name-inside-and-outside-of-the-nt-353447/

http://www.thoughts.com/letusreason/blog/the-tetragrammaton-and-the-christian-greek-scriptu-215563/

http://www.thoughts.com/letusreason/blog/the-septuagint-and-gods-name-yhwh-jhvh-169019/

http://www.thoughts.com/letusreason/blog/yhwh-and-the-nt-syrohexapla-and-other-syriac-mss-165107/




THE DIVINE NAME

The Divine Name: Should We Refrain From Saying It?

“It is evident that the original pronunciation of God’s name is no longer known. Nor is it really important. If it were, then God himself would have made sure that it was preserved for us to use. The important thing is to use God’s name according to its conventional pronunciation in our own language.”- Watchtower

Many people of today starting from the second century don’t know the name of Almighty God. For them they call him as LORD or God. Just like that. Some write the word “LORD” or “God” if they are referring to Almighty God or the Sovereign Lord. The Jehovah’s Witnesses do use these terms but not as names of the Supreme Being but rather they call the Almighty God by his name “Jehovah.” LORD and God are not names. They are only titles. Just for example the word “president”. When we are referring to the president of a country or a company, we write the beginning letter in uppercase, i.e. President, making this as a proper noun. So we may write for example in this manner: “The President of the Philippines has arrived already.” or “The President of Development Bank of the Philippines supports the uplifting of the economy.” We do not write the first letter of the “president” in lowercase but instead in uppercase. This is the same also with the title “Chief Justice”. We often write it in that manner not “chief justice” because we refer to a respectable person, a well-known being of a particular place. Although sometimes we write it in lowercase, this only happens after we have introduced already the uppercase form of the first and sixth letter of Chief Justice or the President in the beginning of the sentences. And this is true also with the word “LORD” or “God”. We refer to the ultimate being – the most powerful in the universe. That is why it is written all in uppercase in other Bible. There are lords and gods in the Bible (written in lowercase), but these are not proper nouns. These are considered as common nouns. So by citing specific name of gods just like Baal and Zeus, this show a proper names were given to the gods. In New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, “God” and “Lord” were written as “God” and “Lord”. The name Jehovah was used to refer to Almighty or Supreme God. The name Jehovah appeared almost 7000 times in New World Translation and in the original Hebrew Bible and it was asserted by many scholars and different religions. Anyway, the question is “Does God really has a name? If yes, why can’t others find it in their Bibles? To answer these we must consider the history behind the lost of the Divine Name in other Bible. The lost of the Divine name occur after the second century C.E. The following paragraphs have quoted from the articles of Jehovah’s Witnesses in the Watchtower’s website.

THE FIGHT AGAINST GOD’S NAME

His name was Hananaiah Ben Teradion. He was a Jewish scholar of the second century C.E., and he was known for holding open meetings where he taught from Sefer Torah, a scroll containing the first five books of the Bible. Ben Teradion was also known for using the personal name of God and teaching it to others. Considering that the first five books of the Bible contain the name of God more than 1,800 times, how could he teach the Torah without teaching about God’s name?

A relief depicting the execution of Hananiah ben Teradion

Ben Teradion’s day, however, was a dangerous time for Jewish scholars. According to Jewish historians, the Roman emperor had made it illegal under penalty of death to teach or practice Judaism. Eventually, the Romans arrested Ben Teradion. At his arrest he was holding a copy of Sefer Torah. When responding to his accusers, he candidly admitted that in teaching a Bible, he was merely obeying a divine command. Still, he received the death sentence.

On the day of his execution, Ben Teradion was wrapped in the very scroll of the Bible that he was holding when arrested. Then he was burned at the stake. The Ecyclopaedia Judaica says that “in order to prolong his agony tufts of wool soaked in water were placed over his heart so that he should not die quickly.” As part of his punishment, his wife was also executed and his daughter sold to a brothel.

Although the Romans were responsible for this brutal execution of Ben Teradion, the Talmuda states that “the punishment of being burnt came upon him because he pronounced the Name in its full spelling.” Yes, to the Jews, pronouncing the name of God was indeed a serious transgressions.

THE THIRD COMMANDMENT

Evidently, during the first and second centuries C.E., a superstition regarding the use of God’s name took hold among the Jews. The Mishnah (a collection of rabbinic commentaries that became the foundation of the Talmud) states that “one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelt” has no portion in the future earthly Paradise promised by God.

What was the origin of such a prohibition? Some claim that the Jews considered the name of God too sacred for imperfect humans to pronounce. Eventually, there was hesitancy even to write the name. According to one source, that fear arose because of a concern  that the document in which the name was written might later end up in the trash, resulting in a desecration of the divine name.

The Encyclopaedia Judaica says that “the avoidance of pronouncing the name YHWH . . . was caused by a misunderstanding of the Third Commandment. The third of the Ten Commandments given by God to the Israelites states: “You must not take up the name of Jehovah your God in a worthless way, for Jehovah will not leave the one unpunished who takes up his name in a worthless way.” (Exodus 20:7) Hence, God’s decree against the improper use of his name was twisted into a superstition.

Surely, no one today claims that God would have someone burned at the stake for pronouncing the divine name! Yet, Jewish superstitions regarding God’s personal name still survive. Many continue to refer to the Tetragrammaton as the “Ineffable Name” and the “Unutterable Name.” In some circles all references to God are intentionally mispronounced to avoid violating the tradition. For example, Jah, or Yah, an abbreviation for God’s personal name, is pronounced Kah. Hallelujah is pronounced Hallelukah. Some even avoid writing out the term “God,” substituting a dash for one or more letters. For instance, when they wish to write the English word “God,” they actually write “G-d.”

Footnote: aThe Talmud is a compilation of ancient Jewish tradition and is regarded as one of the most sacred and influential written works of the Jewish religion.” – end of quote

So that is the reason why the divine name of God had not preserved until this day. But should we not use a name for God, wherein in fact He himself showed the importance of his name? In this article we will know whether Jehovah, the name of God used by Jehovah’s Witnesses is improper to use.

Well others don’t believe on the name Jehovah as the name of God. They say this is not the correct name of God because it is only invented by man. They say this is not the exact transliteration of the tetragrammaton (YHWH). Others also insisting that there is no letter “J” in ancient Hebrew therefore, it is not right to use Jehovah. Others say it is proper to use Yahweh than Jehovah. Let us see whether name Jehovah is not right to use.

The original scriptures of the Bible in Hebrew were written without vowels or written purely in consonants. The ancient Hebrew alphabet consists of 22 letters. There was no letter J in the ancient Hebrew alphabet. The Modern Hebrew alphabet consists also of 22 letters with no letter “J” and has “V” similar to “W” of the ancient Hebrew alphabet. Thus, other transliterations of tetragrammaton is YHVH or JHVH because “w” is no longer in the Modern Hebrew. (See the Modern Hebrew Alphabet.) And why YHWH has changed to JHVH specifically the first letter Y to J?

We know that some names in the Bible started in letter “J” such as Jesus, Jacob, John, James, Joshua, Jonathan, Jonah, Jeremiah and others. These names in Biblical Hebrew before were starting in letter “Y”. For instance, the name Jesus was probably pronounced as Yeshua or Yehoshua. Nobody knows the exact pronunciation of it yet we acknowledge the name Jesus in our time. We believe in the name Jesus though it is not the exact translation of his original name. Wouldn’t be the same also with the name Jehovah? To continue, Jeremiah was written as Yeremiyahu, Isaiah as Yeshayahu, Jonah as Yonah, Jacob as Ya’akov, John as Yochanan, Joel as Yoel and Joseph as Yosef. These starts all in letter “Y” in the Biblical Hebrew yet we recognize the transformations of these names in our modern time. So there is no reason to question the letter “J” in the name Jehovah. Also, Jah is the abbreviated form of Jehovah which is the same as Yah. Jehovah is one of the closer suggested pronunciation of Tetragrammaton with dots in the Leningrad Codex of 1008 – 1010 A. D. wherein the vowel points were added by the Masoretes in the first millennium C.E. These are the six Hebrew spellings of the tetragrammaton in Leningrad Codex: Yehovah – Genesis 3:14, Yehwah – Judges 16:28, Yehowih* – Judges 16:28, Yehwih* – Genesis 15:2, Yehowih – 1 Kings 2:26 and Yehwih – Ezekiel 24:24. They note that in this transliteration it is not intended to indicate how the name is pronounced, but only how the word would be pronounced if read like any other word.

The Leningrad Codex of 1008-1010 A.D.

Vowel points were added to the Tetragrammaton by the Masoretes, in the first millennium C.E.

Six different Hebrew spellings of the Tetragrammaton are found in:
The Leningrad Codex of 1008-1010 A.D. as shown below (note that the entries in the transliteration column are not intended to indicate how the name is pronounced, but only how the word would be pronounced if read like any other word):

Chapter & Verse Hebrew Spelling Transliteration Codex L. Link Explanation
Genesis 3:14 יְהֹוָה Yehovah [1] This is the most common set of vowels, which are essentially the vowels from Adonai (with the hataf patah reverting to its natural state as a shwa).
Judges 16:28 יְהוָה Yehwah [2] This is the same as above, but with the dot over the holam/waw left out, because it is a little redundant.
Judges 16:28 יֱהֹוִה Yehowih* [3] When the Tetragrammaton is preceded by Adonai, it receives the vowels from the name Elohim instead. The hataf segol does not revert to a shwa because doing so could lead to confusion with the vowels in Adonai.
Genesis 15:2 יֱהוִה Yehwih* [4] Just as above, this uses the vowels from Elohim, but like the second version, the dot over the holam/waw is omitted as redundant.
1 Kings 2:26 יְהֹוִה Yehowih [5] Here, the dot over the holam/waw is present, but the hataf segol does get reverted to a shwa.
Ezekiel 24:24 יְהוִה Yehwih [6] Here, the dot over the holam/waw is omitted, and the hataf segol gets reverted to a shwa.

The * indicates that the transliteration “e” indicates a Hatef Segol.

The name “Jehovah” first appeared in the translations of John Wycliffe of the King James Version in 1611. It appears in Exodus 6:2-3, Psalms 83:18 and Isaiah 12:2, 26:4. Before the name “Jehovah” was formed, the tetragrammaton was transliterated as Iehouah in Latin (consider the Geneva Version of 1608) then became Iehova. I guess the Bible names written in Hebrew were not all transliterated exactly just as we mentioned above. Jesus was probably pronounced as Yeshua or Yehoshua. No one knows the exact transliteration of it for there are no vowels in Hebrew language. The name Jesus was rendered as Iesous in Greek. But we accept the English translation of the name Jesus and other translations in other languages because of our faith. Our faith shows that the person who possess that name (whether it is translated accurately or not ) did really exist. Wouldn’t be right also to accept the name Jehovah because of our faith?

Today, Jesus is rendered differently according to the language of the reader of the Bible. Spanish Bible readers encounter Jesús (pronounced Hes·soos’). Italians spell it Gesù (pronounced Djay·zoo’). And Germans spell it Jesus (pronounced Yay’soos). If you will be on these countries would you not use these names because these are not familiar with you? Would you like to teach them the name Jesus in your own language rather than by using their own language?

The Bible says that God knows each one of the many billions of stars by name. (Isaiah 40:26).Would it not be proper also for himself to have a name that can be called by his people?

Here are the verses in the Bible that you can ponder to realize why the name of God is really important:

Jesus taught his followers to pray to God: “Let your name be sanctified.” (Matthew 6:9) And in prayer on the night before his execution, he said to his Father: “I have made your namemanifest to the men you gave me out of the world . . . Holy Father, watch over them on account of your own namewhich you have given me.”—John 17:6, 11, 26

“Everyone who calls on the name of Jehovah will get away safe.”—Joel 2:32; Acts 2:21.

Only conscientious reading and studying of the Bible can provide you with insight into the kind of God that Jehovah is. He promises to protect those who show affection for him and his name. Regarding one who does so, God says: “Because on me he has set his affection, I shall also provide him with escape. I shall protect him because he has come to know my name. He will call upon me, and I shall answer him. I shall be with him in distress. I shall rescue him and glorify him. With length of days I shall satisfy him, and I shall cause him to see salvation by me.”—Psalm 91:14-16.

Thus, the disciple James remarked during a conference of the elders at Jerusalem: “Symeon has related thoroughly how God for the first time turned his attention to the nations to take out of them a people for his name. And with this the words of the Prophets agree.” (Acts 15:14, 15)

“At that time those in fear of Jehovah spoke with one another, each one with his companion, and Jehovah kept paying attention and listening. And a book of remembrance began to be written up before him for those in fear of Jehovah and for those thinking upon his name.—Malachi 3:16.

Jesus Christ teaching his disciples to pray: “You must pray, then, this way: ‘Our Father in the heavens, let your name be sanctified.'”—Matthew 6:9, 10

I am Jehovah. That is my name; and to no one else shall I give my own glory.”—Isaiah 42:8

The present-day Hebrew and Arabic alphabets still consist of consonant letters only, Hebrew having 22 letters and Arabic 28. Some of these letters, however, acquired the added function of representing long vowels. Another method of indicating vowels in written Hebrew or Arabic is by adding dots or dashes placed below, above, or to the side of the consonant. This system for indicating vowels developed for Arabic, Hebrew, and Aramaic during the 8th and 9th centuries ad to ensure the correct reading of sacred texts, and avoid the multiple readings possible when vowels are missing. Bls, for example, could be read as bless, bliss, bills, or bales. Like Phoenician and other Semitic languages, Arabic, Hebrew, and Aramaic are written from the right to the left. Consider this translation of Hebrew in modern writings.

Here is a translations of a Bible verse from Hebrew words to English words of Deuteronomy 6:4 :

SHMAA YISRAEL YAH HOVEH ELOHEINU YAH HOVEH ECHAD
HEAR ISRAEL YAH IS OUR GOD YAH IS ONE

This is how it appears in the Hebrew Scrolls:

Read from right to left (so also the following)
Top line:
YHVH  Yisrael  Shmaa <{——-Bottom line:
echad YHVH Eloheinu <{——-

The HWH (hawah) or HVH (havah) means “to be” in which Jehovah’s Witnesses renders these as “causes to become” thus in my opinion the translations of a Bible verse in the preceding words can also be written in the short form of the name of God as “Hear Israel, Jah [who] causes to become(HWH) our God, is one Jah [who] causes to become. But in NWT it is written as “Listen, O Israel: Jehovah our God is one Jehovah.” This proves that Jehovah is one God and he shows himself as one person only and not in triune God. This is only my own mapping with the short form of the name Jehovah which is Jah and the verb hwh (hawah) which has a meaning of causes to become.

Here are the versions of Bible that uses the Divine name:

Restored Name King James Version OT – Uses the actual Hebrew Tetragrammaton throughout
NT – Uses Tetragrammaton and Hebrew letters for Y’Shua
The Scriptures – The ISR OT – Uses the actual Hebrew Tetragrammaton throughout
NT – Uses Tetragrammaton and Hebrew letters for Y’Shua
Hebrew Names Version of the World English Bible NT – Uses Yeshua and Hebrew Names for NT Books
Hebraic Roots Version NT only
James Trimm
NT – Uses Yeshua, Hebrew names and YHWH
Complete Jewish Bible – D Stern NT – Uses Yeshua throughout
Hebrew Bible (OT only)
(World English Bible version)
OT – Uses Yahweh throughout
The Tanach (OT) in Hebrew Uses the actual Hebrew rendering YHVH (Tetragrammaton)
The Tanach in Hebrew Uses the actual Hebrew rendering YHVH (Tetragrammaton)
The New Testament in Hebrew Uses the Hebrew letters/version for ‘Yeshua’
Jerusalem Bible 1971 Uses Yahweh throughout OT
Rotherham 1897 Uses Yahweh throughout OT
Restoration of Original Sacred   Name Bible 1970 Uses Yahweh throughout OT & many times in NT
Traina, Holy Name Bible 1963 Uses Yahweh throughout OT & many times in  NT
Anchor Bible Uses Yahweh throughout OT
Bible in Basic English 1965 Yahweh – Ex. 6:2, 3, 6; Ps.83:18 Jah – Isa. 12:2; Isa. 26:4
Berkeley Version 1963 Yahweh – Ps.147; Ps.8; Gen.22:14; Hosea12:5
Goodspeed & Smith The Bible Yahweh – Ex 3:16;  Ex 6:3
Ogden- The Basic Bible 1950 Yahweh – Ps.83:18
An American Tr. 1948 Yah  – Isa 12:2; Isa. 26:4
New World Translation Uses Jehovah throughout OT and 277 in NT
LeFevre, G.N. N.T. 1929 Uses Jehovah many times in NT
Roth N.T. 1963 Uses Jehovah many times in NT
Ballentine American Bible 5 Vols. N.T. 1901 Jehova NT 13 times
Wakefield, G. N.T. 1795 Jehovah NT – Rev. 19:1, 3, 4 & 6
Grant’s Numerical Bible Uses Jehovah throughout OT
Darby 1890 Uses Jehovah throughout OT
Taylor – The Living Bible 1971 Uses Jehovah throughout OT
Young – Literal Translation Uses Jehovah throughout OT
ASV 1901 Uses Jehovah throughout OT
Byington 1972 Uses Jehovah throughout OT
Sharpe 1865 Uses Jehovah throughout OT
Westminster Version Uses Jehovah throughout OT
American Baptist Publication Soc. Holy Bible – An improved Edition 1913 Uses Jehovah throughout OT
Bellamy Holy Bible (Pentateuch) 1818 Uses Jehovah throughout OT
Moulton 1914 Jehovah – Ps.83:18; Ex.6:2-9; Ex.22:14;  Ps.68:4; Jer.16:20 Isa.12:2; 26:4
N.E.B. 1970 Jehovah p.XVI Gen. 4:26; Ex.3:l5-16; Ex.6:3; 33:19; 34:5-6; 35:31
K.J.V. 1611 Jehovah – 4 times: Ex.6:2-3; Ps.83:18, (68:4) Isa. 12:2; 26:4
Revised English Version 1898 Jehovah – Ex.6:2-3; Ps.83:18
Dr. Conquest 1843 Jehovah – Ps.83:18
Polyglott – English Version 1836 Jehovah – Ps.83:18
Joseph Smith – Inspired Version 1936 ed Jehovah – Ps.83:18
Green J.P. King James & others Jehovah – Ps.83:18
Scott, T. 1816 Jehovah – Ps-83:18
Green, J.P. Modern K . J . 1962 Jehovah – Ps.83:18
Book of Mormon Jehovah – on last page only
Good News Bible “Lord” Jehovah Ex 6:3 footnote
Berkeley Version Bible in Modern English 1963 Jehovah – Gen 22:14; Ex 6:3 Ps 8:1,9; Ex 3:15; Yahweh – Hosea 12:5
Great Bible (Hexaplar Psalter)  1969 Jehovah – Ps-33:12
Iehoua Ps,83:18
Geneva Version 1608 Iehouah – Gen.22:14; Ps.83:18
Forms of the divine name in different languages, indicating international acceptance of the form JehovahAwabakal – Yehóa
Bugotu – Jihova
Cantonese – Yehwowah
Danish – Jehova
Dutch – Jehovah
Efik – Jehovah
English – Jehovah
Fijian – Jiova
Finnish – Jehova
French – Jéhovah
Futuna – Ihova
German – Jehova
Hungarian – Jehova
Igbo – Jehova
Italian – Geova
Japanese – Ehoba
Maori – Ihowa
Motu – Iehova
Mwala-Malu – Jihova
Narrinyeri – Jehovah
Nembe – Jihova
Petats – Jihouva
Polish – Jehowa
Portuguese – Jeová
Romanian – Iehova
Samoan – Ieova
Sotho – Jehova
Spanish – Jehová
Swahili – Yehova
Swedish – Jehova
Tahitian – Iehova
Tagalog – Jehova
Tongan – Jihova
Venda – Yehova
Xhosa – uYehova
Yoruba – Jehofah
Zulu – uJehova

People say that it is improper to pronounce the name of God. Why the Christendom believes in the name of Jesus though it is not the actual spelling of Jesus name? It was said that Jesus may probably pronounced as Yehoshua or Yeshua but why do we accept the name Jesus? It is because we believe on the personality of that person rather than his name. We do not pronounce it as in Hebrew but on how we pronounce it in our own language. Just as what the Watchtower mentioned above Jesus is pronounce in different languages. It is not always the same but different according to different languages spoken by people. What is Peter in Tagalog? Is it not Pedro? Is it the same in other languages? What about Paul is it not Pablo in Tagalog? Is it still Pablo or Paul in other languages? It is not. What about James in Tagalog? It is Santiago isn’t it? Is it still the same in other languages? So from these we can learn that it is not the pronunciation that matters but rather on the person who holds that name, his attributes and his own personality that define his name according to different languages. That is true also when it comes to the name of God – Jehovah. It does not matter if we pronounce it different from the original pronunciation of God’s name but on how we give importance to the carrier of that name and give much value on the personality, attributes and identity of Almighty God.       The Watchtower site emphasized this: “GOD himself tells us his name. He is recorded as saying: “I am Jehovah, that is my name.”* (Isaiah 42:8, American Standard Version) The name Jehovah is the best-known English form of the Hebrew name God gave himself. It may surprise you that this unique Hebrew name appears thousands of times in ancient Bible manuscripts. In fact, it appears more often than any other name mentioned in the Bible.

Some may answer the question, “What is God’s name?” by saying, “the Lord.” Really, though, that is no more informative than it would be to answer the question, “Who won the election?” by saying, “the candidate.” Neither provides a clear answer, since “Lord” and “candidate” are not names.

Why did God reveal his name to us? He did it so that we can come to know him better. To illustrate, a person may be called Sir, Boss, Dad, or Grandpa, depending on the circumstances. These titles reveal something about him. But the name of the person reminds us of everything we know about him. Likewise, titles such as Lord, Almighty, Father, and Creator call attention to different facets of God’s activities. But only his personal name, Jehovah, reminds us of everything we know about him. How can you really know God without knowing his name?

It is important not only to know but also to use that name. Why? Because the Bible tells us: “Everyone who calls on the name of Jehovah will be saved.”—Romans 10:13; Joel 2:32.” – end of quote

 


 

THE DIVINE NAME:SPOKEN BY JESUS AND EARLY CHRISTIANS

The Divine Name of God: Spoken by Jesus and Early True Christians

(An Archeological, Logical and Biblical Proofs)


Many religious scholars are still looking for evidence that the Divine Name or the Tetragrammaton has been known to early true Christians. They believe that Jesus himself have revealed the name of his Father to his apostles and disciples. Even this fact can be seen clearly in the New Testament or Christian Greek Scriptures which are being presented by the Jehovah’s Witnesses and others religious scholars and leaders, yet a lot of people do not recognize the word of God. As we go through here, you will realize the facts that the Divine Name of God was used by early Christians.

The main reason why other religious leaders and their followers do not recognize the account of this is because the Septuagint (LXX) or the Greek Translation of Hebrew Scriptures have not encountered any written word or symbol for Tetragrammaton but instead a word “Kyrios” which means “Lord” were found. Some early Bible Versions including Latin Vulgate translated by Jerome from Hebrew in 4th century C.E. have not retained the Name of God. However, some Bible versions by some people like Aquila (1st century C.E.) and Symachus (2nd century C.E.) has retained the Tetragrammaton. This was shown by Origen in his hexapla – a six-column inspired reproduction of the Hebrew Scriptures in Greek language. In a study of his Hexapla on the evidence of the fragmentary copies now known, Professor W. G. Wadell said this:

“In Origen’s Hexapla . . . the Greek versions of Aquila, Symmachus, and LXX all represented JHWH by PIPI; in the second column of the Hexapla the Tetragrammaton was written in Hebrew characters.” – The Journal of Theological Studies, Oxford, Vol. XLV, 1944, pp. 158, 159. Others believe the original text of Origen’s Hexapla used Hebrew characters for the Tetragrammaton in all its columns. Origen himself stated that “in the most accurate manuscripts THE NAME occurs in Hebrew characters, yet not in today’s Hebrew [characters], but in the most ancient ones”.

Now, based on this evidence, we can say that the Septuagint has tetragrammaton. There has no indication that there is a Septuagint which has no tetragrammaton in its entire volume. The only thing that made up a wrong conclusion by the other religious scholars and religions was that they don’t found any evidence of tetragrammaton in the 5000 excavated fragments of the New Testament or Greek Christian Scriptures and the version of Latin Vulgate (complete Hebrew and Greek Scriptures translated into Latin language) by Jerome in the 4th century C.E., wherein he also not retain the tetragrammaton and said he had used the Septuagint BUT MADE A COMMENT THAT THE TETRAGRAMMATON WERE WRITTEN IN SOME GREEK VOLUMES IN THE ANCIENT HEBREW CHARACTERS [capitalization for emphasis]. On the other hand, Aquila had translated the Hebrew Scriptures or the Old Testament into Greek in his own way. Aquila was probably lived from 130 C.E. It was said that Aquila consult the Septuagint wherein the tetragramatton was there written in Greek letters and equivalent to “PIPI” in Roman characters. In fact, Origen also examined the Septuagint(LXX) and Symmachus version wherein he also found the tetragrammaton denoted in Greek characters and could be translated the same as PIPI in Roman Chracters. Still this evidence do not recognize by many and say that from the original Septuagint (without tetragrammaton), some had revised it and put back again the Divine Name of God which may have used by Aquila and Symmachus and have examined by Origen. So in this case, some would believe that the Septuagint used by Origen was not the original Septuagint but a revised version of the original Septuagint. Later, we will find out if these were true.

As of today, the archeologists or researchers have found around 5000 copies of fragments of the New Testaments in the Dead Sea Regions. And scholars have examined these fragments and have found that the tetragrammaton cannot be found anywhere else on it. Such observation have resulted in many religious scholars and leaders to conclude that the original Septuagint used by Jesus and his disciples do not contain the Divine Name and they claim these were original writings or manuscripts of the writers of Christian Greek Scriptures. However, based on the dating of the fragments it was found out that these fragments were existed from 3rd century to 4th century C.E. Yet, still many religious scholars who don’t believe in using the name of God do not recognize this fact. So, again with this, we will not yet assume that they are wrong.

However, there were evidences found out from some fragments of original Septuagint which have excavated as it was from the Old Testament written in Greek. One of these fragments was found by researchers and gave them a dating from 50 B.C. to 50 C.E. Below are pictures of those fragments which contain tetragrammaton and had taken from Wikipedia’s site.  You can see the picture from this link site: http://www.eliyah.com/lxx.html

And from another site, I have found an explanation of some fragments and it was called Fouad 266 papyri which has been studied by the Watch Tower itself. You can check the figure from this link: http://www.thoughts.com/blog/photos/59645 and http://www.thoughts.com/blog/photos/56583

The above link is only visible if you have account in thoughts.com

Below is a quote words from a blog contributor:

In the picture above [# 56583], the left hand picture again is of Fouad 266, and is dated to the 1st century BCE. The Tetragrammaton can be seen (encircled with pointed arrows). The main text is in Greek, but the Divine Name has been retained in Hebrew!

Do you see that, even though the main text is in Greek, the Tetragrammaton in square Hebrew letters is used? So the copyist of this papyrus scroll also did not substitute the Greek words for “Lord” (Kyrios) or “God.” Rather, over 30 times he put—in the midst of the Greek writing—the Tetragrammaton in Hebrew letters!”

The fouad 266 can be seen in this link taken from tetrgrammaton.org:

http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rak/lxxjewpap/PFou848.jpg

Other fragments can be seen in this link:

http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rak/lxxjewpap/tetragram.jpg

http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rak/lxxjewpap/POxy3522.jpg

http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rak/lxxjewpap/4QDeut.jpg

See the links below that provides pictures of fragments of tetragrammaton in BCE and CE.

Dr. Paul E. Kahle of Oxford explained that these fragments contain “perhaps the most perfect Septuagint text of Deuteronomy that has come down to us.”

In Studia Patristica, he added,

“We have here in a papyrus scroll a Greek text which represents the text of the Septuagint in a more reliable form than Codex Vaticanus and was written more than 400 years before.”

The above words were taken from a site who also quoted those words from the viewed website of the preceding figures.

The following are some of the fragments of LXX that have the tetragrammaton which are available for studies of religious scholars:
1) LXX P. Fouad Inv. 266.

2) LXX VTS 10a.

3) LXX IEJ 12.

4) LXX VTS 10b.

5) 4Q LXX Levb.

6) LXX P. Oxy. VII.1007.

7) Aq Burkitt.

8) Aq Taylor.

9) Sym. P. Vindob. G. 39777.

10) Ambrosiano O 39 sup.

The above fragments show that there was really tetragrammaton used in Septuagint.

Another fragment that had found and had commented by a scholar who believes tetragrammaton was really existed in original Septuagint is below.

On the transcription of the Divine Name [in the LXX] B.J. Roberts wrote in 1951: “The problem still remains unsolved and is under discussion.” If any change has taken place over the past decade it is in a movement still further away from the position of Baudissin. This scholar had maintained that right from its origins the LXX had rendered the Tetragrammaton by Kyrios [Kyrios], and that in no case was this latter a mere substitute for an earlier jAdwnaiv [Adonai]. Thus he denied the evidence of Origen that in the more accurate manuscripts the Divine Name was written in ancient (palaeo-Hebrew) script and the later testimony of Jerome to the same effect. As Waddell pointed out, Baudissin’s summary statement is “flatly disproved” by the Fouad Papyrus, and now a Qumran fragment of Leviticus ii-iv, written in a hand closely akin to Fouad 266, has been found to render the Tetragrammaton by IAW. Kahle is also of the opinion, and claims the concurrence of C.H. Roberts, that in the Rylands Papyrus Greek 458, at Deuteronomy xxvi.17 where the text breaks off just before the appearance of the Divine Name, the original bore not Kyrios as Roberts originally supposed, but the unabridged Tetragrammaton. It would seem therefore that the evidence most recently to hand is tending to confirm the testimony of Origen and Jerome, and that Kahle is right in holding that LXX texts, written by Jews for Jews, retained the Divine Name in Hebrew Letters (palaeo-Hebrew or Aramaic) or in the Greek imitative form PIPI, and that its replacement by Kyrios was a Christian innovation.[22]

[22] From The Septuagint and Modern Study, Sidney Jellicoe, 1968, pp. 271-272. See also the two books Studies inthe Septuagint: Origins, Recensions, and Interpretations, edited by Sidney Jellicoe and Essays in Biblical Greek: Studies on the value and use of the Septuagint, Edwin Hatch, 1970, p. 149. ” – end of quote

If still these facts were not considered by many even researchers have studied the way of writing of each fragments and also those later fragments that don’t have tetragrammaton and have tested scientifically for the dating of each fragments, then we will not push the fact to them based on archeological findings. However, we still have another way to prove that the tetragrammaton had existed in original Septuagint (LXX). This would now be the logical reasoning. First, the question that may arise is why would Jehovah allow the translators of the original Septuagint who may have lived from 280 B.C. – 50 B. C. to translate the tetragrammaton into Kyrios if his son Jesus whom he will send really know from the beginning the pronunciation of His name? Second, if tetragrammaton was really translated as Kyrios then it would mean that Jesus himself had been a liar to his words in the New Testament in which he said he manifested the name of God (which we are going to show later on this part). Third, what would be the reason of Jehovah who allowed the translators of the original Old Testament to hide his name and be replaced it by” Kyrios” in Septuagint? If this really happened, then Jesus would definitely question these writings because he himself proclaimed the name of God. Fourth, would no one from his apostles ask who is God and what is his name if Jesus would manifest the name of his Father as God or Lord only? Of course they will ask. Jesus introduced himself as the Son of God so definitely apostles would cross to their mind of what the name of God is. In fact there are gods with names mentioned on the time of the first Christians which are familiar to them. Would Jesus reveal his Father as God or Lord only and yet there are others gods that they know on that time? Why would he keep the name of his Father from the early Christians? Some say it is because he himself is the God equivalent to Jehovah and his name Jesus is his new name revealed to the people. Well, this cannot be. Psalm 110:1 clearly states and Jesus himself quoted it from the Septuagint that He himself was described as beside of the Father. So could be Jehovah be Jesus? And Kyrios and Theos are not names. Well, if these are names then why does gods translated also as theos and lords as kyrios in 1 Corinthians 8:5 in Greek Christian Scriptures? So how would Jesus and his apostles and early Christians be differentiated the name of God from those theon and kyrios if there has no name of God mentioned? Even gods and lords before have names. There was no god or lord that has no name. So these are something to think and use for logical reasoning to prove that the tetragrammaton have existed in the original Septuagint.

The fact that 5000 manuscripts of NT that have found with no tetragrammaton on it would only show that there was an alteration made. The fact is, according also to some Talmud that have found, there are rabbis who killed people with scrolls having tetragrammaton and who did not refrain from pronouncing the divine name. The underlying fact is that they gathered most of the scrolls with tetragrammaton and burned them all and have made new copies of scrolls of the Old Testament with Kurios/Kyrios. And consequently have scrupulously translated new manuscripts of the New Testament with Kyrios as a substitute for tetragrammaton and then buried their revised scrolls. Out of the thousands fragments where 5000 copies are from NT, why there are only few fragments of the Old Testament discovered written in Greek with tetragrammaton? The fact it is very few indicates that there was an event happened in favor of the false scribers. And the fact that there are 5000 manuscripts of NT with no tetragrammaton indicate that later Christians after apostles of Jesus have eliminated the tetragrammaton from the original manuscripts. And since NT can be said also as a new covenant to Jews and Gentiles, the later Christians were very much focus in attention to the Christian Greek Scriptures and since they believe on the heresy that the Divine Name of God should not pronounce because of the 3rd Law in the Ten Commandments so they have replaced the tetragrammaton with Kyrios. On the other hand, these rabbis and translators who are after apostles of Christ did not taken considerably the verses from the Old Testament of how important the name of God and how Jesus himself proclaim the name of God to his apostles and to the writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures as it was written in the Christian Greek Scriptures. Later we will see the Biblical proofs that Jesus and writers of Christian Greek Scriptures have used the Divine Name of God.

As far as I have learned, the last book in the Old Testament is Malachi and have said to be finished written until more than 400 B.C. And more than 400 years of gap when the New Testament had finished and by this time the Hebrew language had already wane, thus I believe from 280 B.C as said by the scholars was the time when the original Septuagint was written, the pronouncing of tetragrammaton might have ceased in the tongue of the Jews but not on the time of Jesus and the early Christians. Although the writers of the original Septuagint have retained the tetragrammaton maybe in Paleo-Hebrew and Aramaic characters as what the earliest fragments shows, it would not indicate that they can really pronounce the tetragrammaton in their own language. Maybe they have just written its equivalent characters to its preceding language because its original characters for the tetgrammaton was not in ancient Hebrew anymore but in Paleo-Hebrew and Aramaic. With regards of Apocrypha (the non-canonical writings in Greek language), my opinion as what other claims also is that it was written after the time of the writers of the Greek Christian Scriptures and not from 2nd century B.C. It was only revised by scribers who do not want to use the Divine Name. It shows Apocrypha was a revised writing from its original writing. And the fact it is not included in the Old Testament of the Hebrew Bible before particularly from the Masorete, thus it only shows that it is not inspired by Jehovah. As far as I have quickly scanned the Apocrypha which is a non-canonical book in the Catholic Bible, I have notice that there is no divine intervention of Jehovah with the people and the writers of it because there was no direct communication of God with them. Well, if there was really a divine communication between Jehovah and these people then it should be reported at least on those writings.  And of course eventually, Jehovah himself would reveal his name in its proper pronunciation to these people.

If there are no original Hebrew Old Testament before that used by Origen and was only a translation from the Septuagint with no tetragrammaton then how come the translators of Septuagint used by Aquila and Symmachus which used by Origen can retain the tetragrammaton in its right places of each verse in the original Hebrew Old Testament which others say only a translation from the original Septuagint? He would be having a problem in putting back all of the Divine Name or the tetragrammaton in all the verses in the Old Testament if he is uncertain of its original place. He would definitely be reading the Proverbs 30:6 in relation also to Deuteronomy 4:2 of against adding words of Jehovah. And if he put the Divine Name in all places he want in his own way, then he would be altering definitely the Old Testament. And if someone alters the word of Jehovah he is definitely adding words to original word of Jehovah which he did not say. And if tetragrammaton was not used in the original Septuagint, then why there were fragments with tetragrammaton written in Paleo-Hebrew, Square Hebrew and Aramaic? And if these were only fragments after Septuagint that has no divine name then why there were differences in rendering the tetragrammaton between Aquila’s, Symmachus’ and LXX’s version of tetragrammaton as PIPI [Roman letters for the Greek tetragram that have used] and in the most accurate manuscripts wherein Origen said the divine name was written in ancient Hebrew characters and not in their present Hebrew characters? If there was really no tetragrammaton appeared on some manuscripts or volumes then it must show at least uniform rendering of the tetragrammaton in all the fragments and manuscripts that have found. But that was not the case, there were tetragrammatons in ancient Hebrew as said by Jerome and Origen and in Greek characters in Aquila’s version, LXX, and Symmachus written as PIPI as translated in Roman Characters and in some earliest fragments (at least 10 fragments) where the tetragrammaton appeared to be in Paleo-Hebrew, Square Hebrew and Aramaic. So definitely, there is a custom of changing these characters [tetragrammaton] from a certain time to another time. If there was really an absence of the tetragrammaton in original Septuagint or the tetragrammaton appeared only in the revised Septuagint or other version of the Septuagint then there must show a uniform way in writing these characters of tetragrammaton.  The fact that there were not uniformly written in many manuscripts indicate that tetragrammaton appeared in different ways in the manuscripts from a certain period of time to another period of time. One thing that people cannot be denied. Many scholars believed that the tetragrammaton appeared in the original Hebrew Bible and this was asserted also by different religions. This would now be the end of my logical reasoning. We will now go to the Biblical proofs that Divine Name was spoken by Jesus and his apostles and the writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures. In fact from the text of Malachi 1:11, Jehovah himself told that his name would be great among nations from east to west part of the world.  Logically, these words were fulfilled beginning from the time of Jesus as man for no one can regain the proper pronunciation of the name of God after Malachi except through Jesus who from the beginning knows already the name of God and from the time of early Christians in whom the word of God reaches the other parts of the world through that time not to exclude it has great fulfillment in today’s era.

The following are the verses from the Greek Christian Scriptures (New Testament) where it shows that Jesus proclaimed the Divine Name of God to his apostles and early Christians.

The following scriptures show that Jesus must have used The Divine Name were taken from another blog:

1.      Matthew 6:9 (ASV) “After this manner therefore pray ye. Our Father who art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name.”

2.      John 5:43 (ASV) “I am come in my Father’s name, and ye receive me not: if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive.”

3.      John 10:25 (ASV) “Jesus answered them, I told you, and ye believe not:  the works that I do in my Father’s name, these bear witness of me.”

4.      John 12:28 (ASV) “Father, glorify thy name.  There came therefore a voice out of heaven, [saying], I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again.”

5.      John 17:3 (ASV) “And this is life eternal, that they should know thee the only true God, and him whom thou didst send, [even] Jesus Christ.”

6.      John 17:6 (ASV) “I manifested thy name unto the men whom thou gavest me out of the world:  thine they were, and thou gavest them to me; and they have kept thy word.”

7.      John 17:11, 12 (ASV) ” … And I am no more in the world, and these are in the world, and I come to thee.  Holy Father, keep them in thy name which thou hast given me, that they may be one, even as we [are]. 12 While I was with them, I kept them in thy name which thou hast given me: and I guarded them, and not one of them perished, but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be fulfilled.”

8.      John 17:26 (ASV) ” … and I made known unto them thy name, and will make it known; that the lovewherewith thou lovedst me may be in them, and I in them.”

9.      Acts 15:14 (ASV) “Symeon hath rehearsed how first God visited the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name.”

10.  Acts 15:17 (ASV) “… That the residue of men may seek after the Lord, And all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, …”

11.  Hebrews 2:12 (ASV) ” … saying,I will declare thy name unto my brethren, In the midst of the congregation will I sing thy praise.”

12.  3 John 7 (ASV) ” … because that for the sake of the Name they went forth, taking nothing of the Gentiles.”

13.  Revelation 3:12 (ASV) “He that overcometh, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go out thence no more: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God, and mine own new name.”

14.  Revelation 14:1 (ASV) “And I saw, and behold, the Lamb standing on the mount Zion, and with him a hundred and forty and four thousand, having his name, and the name of his Father, written on their foreheads.”

15.  Revelation 15:4 (ASV) “Who shall not fear, O Lord, and glorify thy name? for thou only art holy; for all the nations shall come and worship before thee; for thy righteous acts have been made manifest.”

16.  Revelation 22:4 (ASV) ” … and they shall see his face; and his name [shall be] on their foreheads.”

These references from Holy Scripture, clearly document the sacred importance and emphasis associated with the use of The Divine Name by Jesus (and the apostles).

  • Jesus’ (Hebrew, Yeshua) own name means “Salvation [or help] of Jah [Jehovah]” or “Jehovah is Salvation;”
  • Jesus stated:  “I have come in the name of my Father” (John 5:43);
  • Jesus taught his followers to pray:  “Our Father in the heavens, let your name be sanctified” (Matthew 6:9);
  • Jesus said his works were done “in the name of my Father” (John 10:25); and,
  • Jesus made his Father’s name known to his disciples and said he would continue to make it known (John 17:6, 11, 12, 26).

Here are the verses in the Bible that you can ponder to realize why the name of God is really important:

  • Jesus taught his followers to pray to God: “Let your name be sanctified.” (Matthew 6:9) And in prayer on the night before his execution, he said to his Father: “I have made your name manifest to the men you gave me out of the world . . . Holy Father, watch over them on account of your own name which you have given me.”—John 17:6, 11.
  • “Everyone who calls on the name of Jehovah will get away safe.”—Joel 2:32; Acts 2:21.
  • Only conscientious reading and studying of the Bible can provide you with insight into the kind of God that Jehovah is. He promises to protect those who show affection for him and his name. Regarding one who does so, God says: “Because on me he has set his affection, I shall also provide him with escape. I shall protect him because he has come to know my name. He will call upon me, and I shall answer him. I shall be with him in distress. I shall rescue him and glorify him. With length of days I shall satisfy him, and I shall cause him to see salvation by me.”—(Underline for emphasis) Psalm 91:14-16.
  • Thus, the disciple James remarked during a conference of the elders at Jerusalem: “Symeon has related thoroughly how God for the first time turned his attention to the nations to take out of them a people for his name. And with this the words of the Prophets agree.” (Acts 15:14, 15-  underline for emphasis)
  • “At that time those in fear of Jehovah spoke with one another, each one with his companion, and Jehovah kept paying attention and listening. And a book of remembrance began to be written up before him for those in fear of Jehovah and for those thinking upon his name.—Malachi 3:16. (underline for emphasis)
  • Jesus Christ teaching his disciples to pray: “You must pray, then, this way: ‘Our Father in the heavens, let your name be sanctified.'”—Matthew 6:9, 10
  • “I am Jehovah. That is my name; and to no one else shall I give my own glory.”—Isaiah 42:8

The Bible says that God knows each one of the many billions of stars by name. (Isaiah 40:26). Would not be proper for himself too to have a name that can be called by his people?

Here are the quotes of Jesus in Greek Christian Scriptures which he quoted from the Old Hebrew Scriptures:

OT Reference JESUS’ quote in NT
Deuteronomy 8:3; 6:16; 6:13 Matthew 4:4, 7, 10
Deuteronomy 6:5 Matthew 22:37
Psalm 110:1 Matthew 22:44
Isaiah 61:1, 2 Luke 4:16-21

No doubt Jesus’ disciples, including the inspired writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures, would follow his example, using The Divine Name in their writings.

In fact early in the book of Exodus, God himself proclaim his name to Moses – Exodus 3:15. He assured to Moses that his name would be for indefinite time. And in Malachi 1:11 God made sure that his name would be great among all nations. The fact that this happened during the time of Jesus as man is because Jesus would not be perfectly ministering the TRUTH (words of Jehovah) if he did not proclaim the name of God. Why Jesus would not make known the name of God to the Christians if that is the basic way of introducing to them of who God really is?

Now, I am ending this essay and I believe these are valid reasons that needs to be accepted by all – that the presence of tetragrammaton in original Septuagint and in New Testament is undeniable based from archeological, logical and Biblical reasonings

Please read the following links about tetragrammaton:

http://www.tetragrammaton.org/lxx.html

http://www.tetragrammaton.org/debate2.html

http://www.tetragrammaton.org/tetra6.html

http://www.tetragrammaton.org/wtarticle.html