THE DIVINE NAME:SPOKEN BY JESUS AND EARLY CHRISTIANS

The Divine Name of God: Spoken by Jesus and Early True Christians

(An Archeological, Logical and Biblical Proofs)


Many religious scholars are still looking for evidence that the Divine Name or the Tetragrammaton has been known to early true Christians. They believe that Jesus himself have revealed the name of his Father to his apostles and disciples. Even this fact can be seen clearly in the New Testament or Christian Greek Scriptures which are being presented by the Jehovah’s Witnesses and others religious scholars and leaders, yet a lot of people do not recognize the word of God. As we go through here, you will realize the facts that the Divine Name of God was used by early Christians.

The main reason why other religious leaders and their followers do not recognize the account of this is because the Septuagint (LXX) or the Greek Translation of Hebrew Scriptures have not encountered any written word or symbol for Tetragrammaton but instead a word “Kyrios” which means “Lord” were found. Some early Bible Versions including Latin Vulgate translated by Jerome from Hebrew in 4th century C.E. have not retained the Name of God. However, some Bible versions by some people like Aquila (1st century C.E.) and Symachus (2nd century C.E.) has retained the Tetragrammaton. This was shown by Origen in his hexapla – a six-column inspired reproduction of the Hebrew Scriptures in Greek language. In a study of his Hexapla on the evidence of the fragmentary copies now known, Professor W. G. Wadell said this:

“In Origen’s Hexapla . . . the Greek versions of Aquila, Symmachus, and LXX all represented JHWH by PIPI; in the second column of the Hexapla the Tetragrammaton was written in Hebrew characters.” – The Journal of Theological Studies, Oxford, Vol. XLV, 1944, pp. 158, 159. Others believe the original text of Origen’s Hexapla used Hebrew characters for the Tetragrammaton in all its columns. Origen himself stated that “in the most accurate manuscripts THE NAME occurs in Hebrew characters, yet not in today’s Hebrew [characters], but in the most ancient ones”.

Now, based on this evidence, we can say that the Septuagint has tetragrammaton. There has no indication that there is a Septuagint which has no tetragrammaton in its entire volume. The only thing that made up a wrong conclusion by the other religious scholars and religions was that they don’t found any evidence of tetragrammaton in the 5000 excavated fragments of the New Testament or Greek Christian Scriptures and the version of Latin Vulgate (complete Hebrew and Greek Scriptures translated into Latin language) by Jerome in the 4th century C.E., wherein he also not retain the tetragrammaton and said he had used the Septuagint BUT MADE A COMMENT THAT THE TETRAGRAMMATON WERE WRITTEN IN SOME GREEK VOLUMES IN THE ANCIENT HEBREW CHARACTERS [capitalization for emphasis]. On the other hand, Aquila had translated the Hebrew Scriptures or the Old Testament into Greek in his own way. Aquila was probably lived from 130 C.E. It was said that Aquila consult the Septuagint wherein the tetragramatton was there written in Greek letters and equivalent to “PIPI” in Roman characters. In fact, Origen also examined the Septuagint(LXX) and Symmachus version wherein he also found the tetragrammaton denoted in Greek characters and could be translated the same as PIPI in Roman Chracters. Still this evidence do not recognize by many and say that from the original Septuagint (without tetragrammaton), some had revised it and put back again the Divine Name of God which may have used by Aquila and Symmachus and have examined by Origen. So in this case, some would believe that the Septuagint used by Origen was not the original Septuagint but a revised version of the original Septuagint. Later, we will find out if these were true.

As of today, the archeologists or researchers have found around 5000 copies of fragments of the New Testaments in the Dead Sea Regions. And scholars have examined these fragments and have found that the tetragrammaton cannot be found anywhere else on it. Such observation have resulted in many religious scholars and leaders to conclude that the original Septuagint used by Jesus and his disciples do not contain the Divine Name and they claim these were original writings or manuscripts of the writers of Christian Greek Scriptures. However, based on the dating of the fragments it was found out that these fragments were existed from 3rd century to 4th century C.E. Yet, still many religious scholars who don’t believe in using the name of God do not recognize this fact. So, again with this, we will not yet assume that they are wrong.

However, there were evidences found out from some fragments of original Septuagint which have excavated as it was from the Old Testament written in Greek. One of these fragments was found by researchers and gave them a dating from 50 B.C. to 50 C.E. Below are pictures of those fragments which contain tetragrammaton and had taken from Wikipedia’s site.  You can see the picture from this link site: http://www.eliyah.com/lxx.html

And from another site, I have found an explanation of some fragments and it was called Fouad 266 papyri which has been studied by the Watch Tower itself. You can check the figure from this link: http://www.thoughts.com/blog/photos/59645 and http://www.thoughts.com/blog/photos/56583

The above link is only visible if you have account in thoughts.com

Below is a quote words from a blog contributor:

In the picture above [# 56583], the left hand picture again is of Fouad 266, and is dated to the 1st century BCE. The Tetragrammaton can be seen (encircled with pointed arrows). The main text is in Greek, but the Divine Name has been retained in Hebrew!

Do you see that, even though the main text is in Greek, the Tetragrammaton in square Hebrew letters is used? So the copyist of this papyrus scroll also did not substitute the Greek words for “Lord” (Kyrios) or “God.” Rather, over 30 times he put—in the midst of the Greek writing—the Tetragrammaton in Hebrew letters!”

The fouad 266 can be seen in this link taken from tetrgrammaton.org:

http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rak/lxxjewpap/PFou848.jpg

Other fragments can be seen in this link:

http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rak/lxxjewpap/tetragram.jpg

http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rak/lxxjewpap/POxy3522.jpg

http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rak/lxxjewpap/4QDeut.jpg

See the links below that provides pictures of fragments of tetragrammaton in BCE and CE.

Dr. Paul E. Kahle of Oxford explained that these fragments contain “perhaps the most perfect Septuagint text of Deuteronomy that has come down to us.”

In Studia Patristica, he added,

“We have here in a papyrus scroll a Greek text which represents the text of the Septuagint in a more reliable form than Codex Vaticanus and was written more than 400 years before.”

The above words were taken from a site who also quoted those words from the viewed website of the preceding figures.

The following are some of the fragments of LXX that have the tetragrammaton which are available for studies of religious scholars:
1) LXX P. Fouad Inv. 266.

2) LXX VTS 10a.

3) LXX IEJ 12.

4) LXX VTS 10b.

5) 4Q LXX Levb.

6) LXX P. Oxy. VII.1007.

7) Aq Burkitt.

8) Aq Taylor.

9) Sym. P. Vindob. G. 39777.

10) Ambrosiano O 39 sup.

The above fragments show that there was really tetragrammaton used in Septuagint.

Another fragment that had found and had commented by a scholar who believes tetragrammaton was really existed in original Septuagint is below.

On the transcription of the Divine Name [in the LXX] B.J. Roberts wrote in 1951: “The problem still remains unsolved and is under discussion.” If any change has taken place over the past decade it is in a movement still further away from the position of Baudissin. This scholar had maintained that right from its origins the LXX had rendered the Tetragrammaton by Kyrios [Kyrios], and that in no case was this latter a mere substitute for an earlier jAdwnaiv [Adonai]. Thus he denied the evidence of Origen that in the more accurate manuscripts the Divine Name was written in ancient (palaeo-Hebrew) script and the later testimony of Jerome to the same effect. As Waddell pointed out, Baudissin’s summary statement is “flatly disproved” by the Fouad Papyrus, and now a Qumran fragment of Leviticus ii-iv, written in a hand closely akin to Fouad 266, has been found to render the Tetragrammaton by IAW. Kahle is also of the opinion, and claims the concurrence of C.H. Roberts, that in the Rylands Papyrus Greek 458, at Deuteronomy xxvi.17 where the text breaks off just before the appearance of the Divine Name, the original bore not Kyrios as Roberts originally supposed, but the unabridged Tetragrammaton. It would seem therefore that the evidence most recently to hand is tending to confirm the testimony of Origen and Jerome, and that Kahle is right in holding that LXX texts, written by Jews for Jews, retained the Divine Name in Hebrew Letters (palaeo-Hebrew or Aramaic) or in the Greek imitative form PIPI, and that its replacement by Kyrios was a Christian innovation.[22]

[22] From The Septuagint and Modern Study, Sidney Jellicoe, 1968, pp. 271-272. See also the two books Studies inthe Septuagint: Origins, Recensions, and Interpretations, edited by Sidney Jellicoe and Essays in Biblical Greek: Studies on the value and use of the Septuagint, Edwin Hatch, 1970, p. 149. ” – end of quote

If still these facts were not considered by many even researchers have studied the way of writing of each fragments and also those later fragments that don’t have tetragrammaton and have tested scientifically for the dating of each fragments, then we will not push the fact to them based on archeological findings. However, we still have another way to prove that the tetragrammaton had existed in original Septuagint (LXX). This would now be the logical reasoning. First, the question that may arise is why would Jehovah allow the translators of the original Septuagint who may have lived from 280 B.C. – 50 B. C. to translate the tetragrammaton into Kyrios if his son Jesus whom he will send really know from the beginning the pronunciation of His name? Second, if tetragrammaton was really translated as Kyrios then it would mean that Jesus himself had been a liar to his words in the New Testament in which he said he manifested the name of God (which we are going to show later on this part). Third, what would be the reason of Jehovah who allowed the translators of the original Old Testament to hide his name and be replaced it by” Kyrios” in Septuagint? If this really happened, then Jesus would definitely question these writings because he himself proclaimed the name of God. Fourth, would no one from his apostles ask who is God and what is his name if Jesus would manifest the name of his Father as God or Lord only? Of course they will ask. Jesus introduced himself as the Son of God so definitely apostles would cross to their mind of what the name of God is. In fact there are gods with names mentioned on the time of the first Christians which are familiar to them. Would Jesus reveal his Father as God or Lord only and yet there are others gods that they know on that time? Why would he keep the name of his Father from the early Christians? Some say it is because he himself is the God equivalent to Jehovah and his name Jesus is his new name revealed to the people. Well, this cannot be. Psalm 110:1 clearly states and Jesus himself quoted it from the Septuagint that He himself was described as beside of the Father. So could be Jehovah be Jesus? And Kyrios and Theos are not names. Well, if these are names then why does gods translated also as theos and lords as kyrios in 1 Corinthians 8:5 in Greek Christian Scriptures? So how would Jesus and his apostles and early Christians be differentiated the name of God from those theon and kyrios if there has no name of God mentioned? Even gods and lords before have names. There was no god or lord that has no name. So these are something to think and use for logical reasoning to prove that the tetragrammaton have existed in the original Septuagint.

The fact that 5000 manuscripts of NT that have found with no tetragrammaton on it would only show that there was an alteration made. The fact is, according also to some Talmud that have found, there are rabbis who killed people with scrolls having tetragrammaton and who did not refrain from pronouncing the divine name. The underlying fact is that they gathered most of the scrolls with tetragrammaton and burned them all and have made new copies of scrolls of the Old Testament with Kurios/Kyrios. And consequently have scrupulously translated new manuscripts of the New Testament with Kyrios as a substitute for tetragrammaton and then buried their revised scrolls. Out of the thousands fragments where 5000 copies are from NT, why there are only few fragments of the Old Testament discovered written in Greek with tetragrammaton? The fact it is very few indicates that there was an event happened in favor of the false scribers. And the fact that there are 5000 manuscripts of NT with no tetragrammaton indicate that later Christians after apostles of Jesus have eliminated the tetragrammaton from the original manuscripts. And since NT can be said also as a new covenant to Jews and Gentiles, the later Christians were very much focus in attention to the Christian Greek Scriptures and since they believe on the heresy that the Divine Name of God should not pronounce because of the 3rd Law in the Ten Commandments so they have replaced the tetragrammaton with Kyrios. On the other hand, these rabbis and translators who are after apostles of Christ did not taken considerably the verses from the Old Testament of how important the name of God and how Jesus himself proclaim the name of God to his apostles and to the writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures as it was written in the Christian Greek Scriptures. Later we will see the Biblical proofs that Jesus and writers of Christian Greek Scriptures have used the Divine Name of God.

As far as I have learned, the last book in the Old Testament is Malachi and have said to be finished written until more than 400 B.C. And more than 400 years of gap when the New Testament had finished and by this time the Hebrew language had already wane, thus I believe from 280 B.C as said by the scholars was the time when the original Septuagint was written, the pronouncing of tetragrammaton might have ceased in the tongue of the Jews but not on the time of Jesus and the early Christians. Although the writers of the original Septuagint have retained the tetragrammaton maybe in Paleo-Hebrew and Aramaic characters as what the earliest fragments shows, it would not indicate that they can really pronounce the tetragrammaton in their own language. Maybe they have just written its equivalent characters to its preceding language because its original characters for the tetgrammaton was not in ancient Hebrew anymore but in Paleo-Hebrew and Aramaic. With regards of Apocrypha (the non-canonical writings in Greek language), my opinion as what other claims also is that it was written after the time of the writers of the Greek Christian Scriptures and not from 2nd century B.C. It was only revised by scribers who do not want to use the Divine Name. It shows Apocrypha was a revised writing from its original writing. And the fact it is not included in the Old Testament of the Hebrew Bible before particularly from the Masorete, thus it only shows that it is not inspired by Jehovah. As far as I have quickly scanned the Apocrypha which is a non-canonical book in the Catholic Bible, I have notice that there is no divine intervention of Jehovah with the people and the writers of it because there was no direct communication of God with them. Well, if there was really a divine communication between Jehovah and these people then it should be reported at least on those writings.  And of course eventually, Jehovah himself would reveal his name in its proper pronunciation to these people.

If there are no original Hebrew Old Testament before that used by Origen and was only a translation from the Septuagint with no tetragrammaton then how come the translators of Septuagint used by Aquila and Symmachus which used by Origen can retain the tetragrammaton in its right places of each verse in the original Hebrew Old Testament which others say only a translation from the original Septuagint? He would be having a problem in putting back all of the Divine Name or the tetragrammaton in all the verses in the Old Testament if he is uncertain of its original place. He would definitely be reading the Proverbs 30:6 in relation also to Deuteronomy 4:2 of against adding words of Jehovah. And if he put the Divine Name in all places he want in his own way, then he would be altering definitely the Old Testament. And if someone alters the word of Jehovah he is definitely adding words to original word of Jehovah which he did not say. And if tetragrammaton was not used in the original Septuagint, then why there were fragments with tetragrammaton written in Paleo-Hebrew, Square Hebrew and Aramaic? And if these were only fragments after Septuagint that has no divine name then why there were differences in rendering the tetragrammaton between Aquila’s, Symmachus’ and LXX’s version of tetragrammaton as PIPI [Roman letters for the Greek tetragram that have used] and in the most accurate manuscripts wherein Origen said the divine name was written in ancient Hebrew characters and not in their present Hebrew characters? If there was really no tetragrammaton appeared on some manuscripts or volumes then it must show at least uniform rendering of the tetragrammaton in all the fragments and manuscripts that have found. But that was not the case, there were tetragrammatons in ancient Hebrew as said by Jerome and Origen and in Greek characters in Aquila’s version, LXX, and Symmachus written as PIPI as translated in Roman Characters and in some earliest fragments (at least 10 fragments) where the tetragrammaton appeared to be in Paleo-Hebrew, Square Hebrew and Aramaic. So definitely, there is a custom of changing these characters [tetragrammaton] from a certain time to another time. If there was really an absence of the tetragrammaton in original Septuagint or the tetragrammaton appeared only in the revised Septuagint or other version of the Septuagint then there must show a uniform way in writing these characters of tetragrammaton.  The fact that there were not uniformly written in many manuscripts indicate that tetragrammaton appeared in different ways in the manuscripts from a certain period of time to another period of time. One thing that people cannot be denied. Many scholars believed that the tetragrammaton appeared in the original Hebrew Bible and this was asserted also by different religions. This would now be the end of my logical reasoning. We will now go to the Biblical proofs that Divine Name was spoken by Jesus and his apostles and the writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures. In fact from the text of Malachi 1:11, Jehovah himself told that his name would be great among nations from east to west part of the world.  Logically, these words were fulfilled beginning from the time of Jesus as man for no one can regain the proper pronunciation of the name of God after Malachi except through Jesus who from the beginning knows already the name of God and from the time of early Christians in whom the word of God reaches the other parts of the world through that time not to exclude it has great fulfillment in today’s era.

The following are the verses from the Greek Christian Scriptures (New Testament) where it shows that Jesus proclaimed the Divine Name of God to his apostles and early Christians.

The following scriptures show that Jesus must have used The Divine Name were taken from another blog:

1.      Matthew 6:9 (ASV) “After this manner therefore pray ye. Our Father who art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name.”

2.      John 5:43 (ASV) “I am come in my Father’s name, and ye receive me not: if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive.”

3.      John 10:25 (ASV) “Jesus answered them, I told you, and ye believe not:  the works that I do in my Father’s name, these bear witness of me.”

4.      John 12:28 (ASV) “Father, glorify thy name.  There came therefore a voice out of heaven, [saying], I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again.”

5.      John 17:3 (ASV) “And this is life eternal, that they should know thee the only true God, and him whom thou didst send, [even] Jesus Christ.”

6.      John 17:6 (ASV) “I manifested thy name unto the men whom thou gavest me out of the world:  thine they were, and thou gavest them to me; and they have kept thy word.”

7.      John 17:11, 12 (ASV) ” … And I am no more in the world, and these are in the world, and I come to thee.  Holy Father, keep them in thy name which thou hast given me, that they may be one, even as we [are]. 12 While I was with them, I kept them in thy name which thou hast given me: and I guarded them, and not one of them perished, but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be fulfilled.”

8.      John 17:26 (ASV) ” … and I made known unto them thy name, and will make it known; that the lovewherewith thou lovedst me may be in them, and I in them.”

9.      Acts 15:14 (ASV) “Symeon hath rehearsed how first God visited the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name.”

10.  Acts 15:17 (ASV) “… That the residue of men may seek after the Lord, And all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, …”

11.  Hebrews 2:12 (ASV) ” … saying,I will declare thy name unto my brethren, In the midst of the congregation will I sing thy praise.”

12.  3 John 7 (ASV) ” … because that for the sake of the Name they went forth, taking nothing of the Gentiles.”

13.  Revelation 3:12 (ASV) “He that overcometh, I will make him a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go out thence no more: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God, and mine own new name.”

14.  Revelation 14:1 (ASV) “And I saw, and behold, the Lamb standing on the mount Zion, and with him a hundred and forty and four thousand, having his name, and the name of his Father, written on their foreheads.”

15.  Revelation 15:4 (ASV) “Who shall not fear, O Lord, and glorify thy name? for thou only art holy; for all the nations shall come and worship before thee; for thy righteous acts have been made manifest.”

16.  Revelation 22:4 (ASV) ” … and they shall see his face; and his name [shall be] on their foreheads.”

These references from Holy Scripture, clearly document the sacred importance and emphasis associated with the use of The Divine Name by Jesus (and the apostles).

  • Jesus’ (Hebrew, Yeshua) own name means “Salvation [or help] of Jah [Jehovah]” or “Jehovah is Salvation;”
  • Jesus stated:  “I have come in the name of my Father” (John 5:43);
  • Jesus taught his followers to pray:  “Our Father in the heavens, let your name be sanctified” (Matthew 6:9);
  • Jesus said his works were done “in the name of my Father” (John 10:25); and,
  • Jesus made his Father’s name known to his disciples and said he would continue to make it known (John 17:6, 11, 12, 26).

Here are the verses in the Bible that you can ponder to realize why the name of God is really important:

  • Jesus taught his followers to pray to God: “Let your name be sanctified.” (Matthew 6:9) And in prayer on the night before his execution, he said to his Father: “I have made your name manifest to the men you gave me out of the world . . . Holy Father, watch over them on account of your own name which you have given me.”—John 17:6, 11.
  • “Everyone who calls on the name of Jehovah will get away safe.”—Joel 2:32; Acts 2:21.
  • Only conscientious reading and studying of the Bible can provide you with insight into the kind of God that Jehovah is. He promises to protect those who show affection for him and his name. Regarding one who does so, God says: “Because on me he has set his affection, I shall also provide him with escape. I shall protect him because he has come to know my name. He will call upon me, and I shall answer him. I shall be with him in distress. I shall rescue him and glorify him. With length of days I shall satisfy him, and I shall cause him to see salvation by me.”—(Underline for emphasis) Psalm 91:14-16.
  • Thus, the disciple James remarked during a conference of the elders at Jerusalem: “Symeon has related thoroughly how God for the first time turned his attention to the nations to take out of them a people for his name. And with this the words of the Prophets agree.” (Acts 15:14, 15-  underline for emphasis)
  • “At that time those in fear of Jehovah spoke with one another, each one with his companion, and Jehovah kept paying attention and listening. And a book of remembrance began to be written up before him for those in fear of Jehovah and for those thinking upon his name.—Malachi 3:16. (underline for emphasis)
  • Jesus Christ teaching his disciples to pray: “You must pray, then, this way: ‘Our Father in the heavens, let your name be sanctified.'”—Matthew 6:9, 10
  • “I am Jehovah. That is my name; and to no one else shall I give my own glory.”—Isaiah 42:8

The Bible says that God knows each one of the many billions of stars by name. (Isaiah 40:26). Would not be proper for himself too to have a name that can be called by his people?

Here are the quotes of Jesus in Greek Christian Scriptures which he quoted from the Old Hebrew Scriptures:

OT Reference JESUS’ quote in NT
Deuteronomy 8:3; 6:16; 6:13 Matthew 4:4, 7, 10
Deuteronomy 6:5 Matthew 22:37
Psalm 110:1 Matthew 22:44
Isaiah 61:1, 2 Luke 4:16-21

No doubt Jesus’ disciples, including the inspired writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures, would follow his example, using The Divine Name in their writings.

In fact early in the book of Exodus, God himself proclaim his name to Moses – Exodus 3:15. He assured to Moses that his name would be for indefinite time. And in Malachi 1:11 God made sure that his name would be great among all nations. The fact that this happened during the time of Jesus as man is because Jesus would not be perfectly ministering the TRUTH (words of Jehovah) if he did not proclaim the name of God. Why Jesus would not make known the name of God to the Christians if that is the basic way of introducing to them of who God really is?

Now, I am ending this essay and I believe these are valid reasons that needs to be accepted by all – that the presence of tetragrammaton in original Septuagint and in New Testament is undeniable based from archeological, logical and Biblical reasonings

Please read the following links about tetragrammaton:

http://www.tetragrammaton.org/lxx.html

http://www.tetragrammaton.org/debate2.html

http://www.tetragrammaton.org/tetra6.html

http://www.tetragrammaton.org/wtarticle.html


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3 responses to this post.

  1. […] The Divine  Name: Spoken by Jesus and early Chrhristians The Divine Name of God: Spoken by Jesus and Early True Christians (An Archeological, Logical and Biblical Proofs) Many religious scholars are still looking for evidence that the Divine Name or the Tetragrammaton has been known to early true Christians. They believe that Jesus himself have revealed the name of his Father to his apostles […] […]

  2. […] The Divine Name of God: Spoken by Jesus and Early True Christians […]

  3. SOME OF THE WORDS SPECIALLY PERTAINING TO PAPYRI AND SCRIPTURAL VERSES WERE TAKEN FROM ANOTHER BLOG OF JEHOVAH’S WITNESSES. I AM SORRY IF I HAD NOT MADE A PERMISSION TO COPY THIS. I HOPE JW WOULD UNDERSTAND THAT MY INTENTION IS NOT TO LET MYSELF BE KNOWN OR MY STUFF BE CREDITED ABOUT THE TRUTH BUT RATHER IS TO SHARE THE TRUTH TO OTHERS. I AM SORRY IF I HAVE NOT PUT THE LINK/S WHERE I HAVE GOT THE OTHER PARTS OF MY BLOG. PLEASE FORGIVE MY BEING UNAWARE OF THE COPYRIGHT LAW OVER THE INTERNET. I HAVE FORGOTTEN THE URL WHERE I GOT SOME OF THE INTERESTING POINTS FOR THE DIVINE NAME OF GOD.

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